Coyoacan, mid-16th c.: Perquisites of don Juan de Guzmán

These manuscripts were first published in Beyond the Codices, eds. Arthur J.O. Anderson, Frances Berdan, and James Lockhart (Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center, 1976), Doc. 26, 150–165 However, the transcription, translation, and a new introduction presented here come from Lockhart's personal papers.

The original documents are in AGN Tierras 1735, exp. 2.

[Introduction by James Lockhart:]
Here are assembled a group of texts going far to define the position of don Juan de Guzmán, tlatoani and governor of Coyoacan, in the mid-sixteenth century. They belong to the larger set of material concerning the Coyoacan municipality around that time that is especially valuable in not yet having adopted Spanish genres and concepts as fully as later. Like much of that body, these texts are undated and mention no writer or notary. We see don Juan still receiving many of the services and tributes of a preconquest tlatoani, still maintaining a palace-like establishment, still holding large and widely scattered lands with many dependents on them.

The seven sections presented here are related, but are individual pieces, not in any certain order, and probably not from the same year. Section 1 may be older than the rest, dating from some time in the 1540s; the rest are surely from before the death of the first don Juan in 1569 and probably considerably earlier than that. Sections 2 and 3 are closely associated, as are sections 5 and 6.

In Section 1, lines 1–43, don Juan, claiming the backing of the viceroy and the Dominicans, asks the Coyoacan cabildo to confirm a detailed list of supplies, services, and tributes to be given him. They include a large amount of indigenous food for his large establishment; the working of four fields for him; the building of a new house; the services of carpenters and stonemasons; rights to the marketplace (which he taxes, as we see in Doc. 25); and a tax in money from the general population, to be paid twice a year. The only thing that is not purely indigenous and precontact about all these demands is the use of money a request for horse fodder.

This part is reminiscent of Doc. 18, the donation of land to the church singers, in that among the cabildo members present are don Pablo Çacancatl and don Luis Cortés. The latter as in several of the earliest texts is still referred to without the second name, simply as the lord of Acuecuexco. Given that don Pablo died in 1549, this text like Doc. 18 must be from that year or earlier (see there for more on don Pablo). The consistent use of tç instead of tz is also an early trait. So is the way that the cabildo members are addressed as if in conversation; throughout it is as though don Juan were actually saying these words in their presence, observing all the niceties. At first his audience is called only rulers, nobles, and lords, “yn antlatoque yn anpipiltin in antetecuhtin,” though later their positions as alcaldes and regidores are mentioned.

The words “tecpancalli” (line 27) and “tecpan” (line 30) are translated here as “palace.” Let it be understood that the reference is not to the building but to the ruler’s household or headquarters organization in general, as one would use throne or crown. Tecpan can readily mean either the building or the organization; tecpancalli literally speaks of the building, but cannot be intended in that sense here.

At the end of this section it is not a mistake that don Juan addresses three people by name and then says “all five of you”; two regidores must have remained unmentioned.

Section 2 (lines 45–72) is simply a list, in a way not in any particular genre, but it can be thought of as modeled on a Spanish memorandum, and so can all the following sections here. Indeed, Section 4 is specifically labeled a memoria. The list in Section 2 names dependents of don Juan as tlatoani; they are as scattered as his lands. Many in fact are located at places where he holds land seen in other listings, and if the lists were exhaustive and consistent we would probably find that that those listed are all on don Juan’s land.

No overall term for the dependents appears here. The one special term at the beginning, “tepantlaca” (line 46), seems to apply only to those who “belong to” don Juan and are no doubt located at the tecpan. That this word distinguishes them from the rest and is not something applying to the whole group is seen by its reappearance in the following list (line 78) among other groups of dependents from various places. One would have expected tecpantlaca, palace people. Since tepan is used here to mean “over people,” supervising them, that might seem a possibility, but in line 78 they seem to be carrying out the same tasks as others.

The list counts tlacatl, a word which means a person of either gender and is often used, as it is here, simply as a counter for human beings of any kind, and thus its translation here is “people.” Nevertheless, since those who are simply unqualified “people” are differentiated from mere youths (“telpopochtotonti[n],” lines 55, 59, 68) and from widows, they must be adult men. The total given is 380 plus widows; this is correct, consisting of 366 adult men and 14 youths. There are 21 groups of them, varying in number from 2 to 80.

Section 3 (lines 74–95) is a list specifying duties of some of the same dependents who figure in Section 2. Their tasks seem mainly traditional, clearing the ground and cultivating it, but in one case they are reaping the Spanish crop wheat, and in another they are working with oxen. They are also providing lumber to a Spaniard. Groups at a given place work as a unit, and in several cases supervisors are mentioned, who all have indigenous second names (for one only a first name is given), so they are not of the highest rank. One of them (line 83) is called by the indigenous name only, an archaic trait.

In this listing we finally get some terms that describe the dependents in general. The first, with the most clearly general intention, is -macehualhuan, the possessed form of macehualli, in “in imaceualoan señor don juan” (line 75). Unpossessed macehualli means ordinary person, person of low rank, commoner, but by our general understanding the possessed form means someone’s subject or vassal regardless of rank; a great lord could be the -macehual, subject, of a tlatoani. For that reason the translation here of the words just quoted is “the vassals of lord don Juan.” But quite possibly in this case the status implication of the term is retained even though possessed, so that the words could mean “the macehualtin of lord don Juan,” and macehualli would be the blanket term for the dependents, no different than with the general commoner population. The question must be considered unresolved for now.

Another term used for the dependents in this section is temiltique (line 86), meaning those who provide cultivated fields to someone, i.e., work them for someone else. “Field workers” is an adequate translation. The word is used again in lines 291, 304, 315.

Among those with assignments are “in tlachichiuhque ioan tlapanauique” (line 89). Tlachichiuhque means literally “those who fix things up” and can be reasonably taken to be artisans. Tlapanahuique are literally “those who exceed, go beyond, excel.” Possibly the reference is to people who for various reasons are raised above the group as a whole. Neither term is known in this connection from other texts, so we remain in considerable uncertainty. At any rate, these people are not said to be at any one location like the other groups and may be scattered about. Their tasks are likewise dispersed, to work don Juan’s greatly scattered purchased land, which we will later see was mainly in smaller parcels than his other holdings.

A large problem in this section is a repeated expression chicomilhuitl, “seven days,” in connection with the groups’ work assignments. In most cases it lacks the ordinal ic or inic, so that it should be durative, for seven days. In the first entry, lines 75–80, although the placement of the word in the paragraph is rather odd, we get a satisfactory sense, that a series of groups will clear ground in San Agustín, taking turns of seven days each.

In other instances, seven days is mentioned in connection with a single group. One is left wondering if the whole group is to work only seven days, or if individuals in it are to take seven-day turns, keeping the activity going. In one case the expression used is “inic chicomilhuitl,” which should normally be “the seventh day,” leaving the meaning unclear.

Section 4 (lines 97–198), specifically called a memorandum, is the first of the three land lists in the present set, by far the largest, and the only one to give measurements for the parcels. First come the inherited lands of the ruler’s household, as we can fairly deduce even though only a few are called huehuetlalli, “old land,” land associated with long enough to be identified with it (lines 107, 109, 117). Here the word is translated as “ancestral land”; “patrimonial land” would have done as well. Though the estate is much more extensive than that of an ordinary person, its structure is the same: callalli, “house-land,” land with the residence on it, listed first here (although the houses in this case are a palace and a huehuecalli, “ancestral house”), followed by scattered distant land. When the lists are seen as a whole, don Juan’s holdings are seen to stretch over all four of the basic sub-altepetl of Coyoacan in addition to the more recent fifth, San Agustín Palpan, as is demonstrated in the extensive compilations concerning don Juan’s land in Horn, Postconquest Coyoacan, pp. 256–57, where much more can be learned. (Follow the index entries “land, Nahua,” and “Guzmán, don Juan de.”)

The list starts out to be organized by Acohuic, the upper region, and Tlalnahuac, the lower region, so basic to the structure of the altepetl of Coyoacan. At the beginning it is announced that don Juan’s Acohuic land will now be listed; but no parallel list for Tlalnahuac then appears. Apparently the writer simply forgot to indicate the division. Atlhuelican and Xochac (lines 112–19) were in Tlalnahuac (Horn, ibid.), and it certainly seems that the following Chinampan, “where the chinampas are,” would have been too.

The inherited lands are substantial but not as numerous as one would have thought, not are they all huge. The other listings imply that this is not all of them.

Next comes a list of don Juan’s purchased lands, tlalcohualli (line 132), this time consistently divided between Acohuic and Tlalnahuac; that is, the Tlalnahuac part coming first is not labeled, but the following Acohuic part is and makes the distinction clear. It is notable that there are many, many more such holdings in Tlalnahuac than in Acohuic. With a few exceptions the purchased parcels are not large, the smallest being 5 quahuitl long, 1 quahuitl and a fraction wide (line 191). This is not the place to speculate what such holdings meant for the manner of operation of don Juan’s estate.

This list and Section 7 are the only parts of the present set to include precise land measurements. Both use the quahuitl, the most common unit across the Nahua world. The one employed in Section 7 (line 292) is said to be of twelve feet, matlactlacxitl omome. That was not necessarily the same in the other case, however. The quahuitl used in the land investigation in Doc. 9, also in the Coyoacan region, was of ten feet. Both ten and twelve feet are larger than what is generally considered the normal size range for the quahuitl, but we do know it varied, and not knowing the precise size of the “foot,” little precision can be attained.

The measurement in Section 3 is so careful that it gives fractions of the quahuitl when applicable. The fraction most employed here is the matl, which in many places was simply the word used locally instead of quahuitl and meaning the same thing, or sometimes alternating with it. Here it is clearly something less than the quahuitl. One might hazard two-thirds, but there is nothing definite to go on. Once (line 165) the fraction specified is the yollotli, “heart,” often defined as the distance from the middle of the chest to the the end of the fingers with arm outstreched.

Sections 5 and 6 make a pair, simply listing lands of don Juan’s with no measurements. The three land lists do not closely agree as to the items included, though there is indeed some overlap. Part of the explanation may be that different names were used for the same plot at different times, for these are not actual names of the parcels, but the names of places where they were, and many places were bits and subdivisions of others, so that a given plot could be in two or three of them at the same time.

Section 5 (lines 199–239) lists the lands to which don Juan at some time was given formal possession, using the Spanish loanword for the act; it was apparently sanctioned by Spanish officials (in a separate procedure), and the document speaks of the king giving the lands to don Juan.

Again we see the structure of house-land vs. distant land, this time fully explicit, for the list begins with the very word, callalli (line 202), which also occurs again three lines below.

Two orchards are mentioned (lines 206, 208), something the ruling lineage was famous for owning. Note that although in some other texts from Coyoacan (Docs. 2, 4) the word appears simply as huerta, here we see the classic form alahuerta.

The list is divided into Acohuic and Tlalnahuac, and this time Acohuic has more items, 21 to 11.

In Section 6 (lines 241–89) the alcaldes of the cabildo confirm don Juan’s rights to a series of landholdings as his tecpillalli with the right to hand it on to his children when he dies. Teuctli is lord, pilli is nobleman, so tecpilli is lordly nobleman. Hence tecpillalli is translated here as lordly nobleman’s land. It belongs to a long series of precontact land categories for the holdings of rulers, lords, and nobles. Most are ill reported in Spanish chronicles and poorly understood to this day. It is at least interesting that the term is still being used here. The meaning of such words is best defined by their use in texts; here we have a good concrete example.

This list is not openly divided into Acohuic and Tlalnahuac, but it seems that the last portion, beginning with Amantlan (line 275), is Tlalnahuac (see Horn, ibid., and lines 224–36 just above).

Section 7 (lines 289–317) demonstrates a change that is going on in the traditional system. Dependents on the ruler’s lands are beginning to take them over for themselves without getting permission. We saw the same thing with the lands of the Tlaxcalan teuctli don Julián de la Rosa in his 1566 will (Doc. 1). Don Juan’s reaction seems the same as don Julián’s, partly acquiescing in the inevitable and giving away some lands to the occupants, partly opposing. Here the alienation of ruler’s lands both voluntary and involuntary is massive. Some of these pieces are larger than anything mentioned among don Juan’s holdings, the largest being a huge 500 quahuitl by 40, enough for fifty standard 20 by 20 plots. We apparently see here the reason why don Juan’s parcels are not presently larger, and perhaps also the reason for so much purchased lands in small bits.

As mentioned above, the term used here for the resident dependents or former dependents is temiltique (lines 291, 304, 315); twice it occurs in the possessed form, don Juan being the possessor.

Title variants: 
Beyond the Codices, Document 26
Principal editor: 
James Lockhart

Transcriptions and Translations

Analytic Transcription English Translation Spanish Translation
ma moyecteneva in itocatçin in totemaquixticatçin yn iesu xpo— Amen v nehuatl ni don juan combernador yn coyovacan nicpiellia in iatçin yn itepetçin yn too yn d[ios] ca nican ca amixpantçinco nictlallia yn anquimopillia ynn altepetl in coyohuacan yn a[n]tlatoque yn anpipiltin in ante-tecuhtin commonequiltia in totlatocauh yn señor visorey ioan ynn amotatçin yn pe vicario yn momanaz yn tansancion yn coiovacan in tlatocatlacua[lli] yn nimacoz in monequi momoztlaye hetetl totolli yoan onquauhtanatli tlaolli ioan centçont[li[ cacahuatl yoan matlacpovalli chilli yoan centlatlapantli yztatl yoan tomatl aiovachtli yoan matlactli tlapixqui chycuei tezqui chycuacentlamamalli cuavitl yoan cavallo tlacualli çacatl macuillamamalli yn valcallaquiz in momoztlaye yn cēca monequi Ioan monequi momavizmatiz nauhcan in milli ynic cecni ocoçacapan ynic ocan milpolco yniquexcan coiotleuhco ynic nauhcan tochco monequi cenca ypan tlatolloz inic mochyhuaz Ioan monequi cecni momanaz calli ycal yez yn ton juan quichivillizque yn macehualtin ypan tla[toz] Ioan monequi ytech pohuizque matlactli tlaxinque no matlactli tetçotçonque yn tleyn monequiz quichyuazque yehuantin Ioan yn tianquiztli ytech poviz yn don juan tecpancalli ytech pohuiz Ioan in ixquich yn toltecca yn tlachichiuhque monequi çan oncan cenpohuizque yn te[c]pan in tlein monequiz quichivazque Ioan monequi chicuhnauhpovalticca oume domin macoz yn don juan quimacaz yn ixquichtin macehualtin ynic tlatocatiz opan ce xivitl macoz O ca iz catqui yn cenca monequi yn mochivaz cuix iuhqui yez cuix noço amo ma ypan ximononotçacan yn amehuantin Residoresme yoan amalcaldesme tehuatl di don pablo tivçacancatl yoan tevatl ti don luys tecuhtli acuecuexco yoan tehuatl ti juan tlaillotlac yn amevantin yn ammacuillixtin ximononotçacan ximocentlallican yn acaçomo iuhqui yes yn anoço yuhquiez ca ia isquich yn amixpantçinco niquitohuā [WHAT FOLLOWS HERE BELONGS TO FORTHCOMING PAGES] Don juan ytech poui tepantlaca centecpantli ipan chicuhnaui tlacatl ioan ycnociuatl v Chimaliztaca cate chicome tlacatl v Atlauhcamilpan chicome tlacatl v mixcouac navi tlacatl v Xochitenco navi tlacatl v Chinancaltonco cate nahui tlacatl v san hieronimo cate matlactlomome tlacatl v tlaçoyiacan cate caxtolli omey tlacatl v Vueycalco cate chicuey tlacatl ome telpopochtotonti v Auacatitlan cate centecpantli once v Acopilco cate centecpantli omacuilli chicuacentlacatl telpopochtotonti v pachiocan cate ome tlacatl v chimalpan cate navi tlacatl v Amantlan cate chicuacentlacatl v Couatzonco matlactlomey tlacatl v Tecouac chicuacentlacatl v Acolco nauhtecpantli tlacatl v Tlamimilolpan ontecpantli omatlactli tlacatl once v Çacamolpan cate centecpantli chicuhnavi tlacatl v Ocotitlan centecpantli onmatlactli tlacatl vi telpopochtotontin v tepechp[an] cate chicuacentlacatl v Auh in ie mochi mocenpova caxtoltecpantli ipan nauhtecpantli iuan ycnociuatl In elimiquizque in sant agustin çacamozque in imaceualoan señor don juan compeua[l]tia xiuhtlan çacamoz ioan çacamolpan ioan ocotitlan ioan cou[a]tzonco ioan tepantlacatl ioan auapoltitlantlaca in chicomiluitl inpan icaz diego v Auh in acopilco tlaca quimacazque in iquauh po de uercala in ixopetl in iquauhtec in chicomilhuitl inpan icaz in uitznauatl v Auh in atlauhcamilpan tlaca tetlacualtizque in chicomilhuitl ic nemizque domingo v Auh in temiltique in cimatlan ioan mixcouac quipizque trigo in Atepocaapan inpan icaz juan tlanauaua in chicomilhuitl v Auh in tlachichiuhque ioan tlapanauique helimiquizque quelimiquizque in ixquich in tlalcoualli in chachaiacatoc quipeualtizque neçaualcaltitla inic chicomilhuitl inpan icaz Anton vixtopolcatl v chimaliztaque quiuicatinemizque in helimiquizque in cuacuaueque chicomilhuitl memoria tlalnauac yn itlaltzin tlatuhuani don Juan goueror ni[can] pouhtoc ynic cecni onca ompehua v tecpan tlacomolco ynic huiac lx quavitl ynic patlahuac xxxv quav[itl] v tepancallon ypan mani vevecalli ynic huiac lxiiii quavitl auh ynic patlahuac onpoualli quavitl v te[c]panquiyauac Jular ynic viac xi ynic patlauac x ypan cenmatl v Acuecuexco vevetlalli ynic viac Lv ynic patlahuac xxxvii quahuitl v tletlepillocan tlillac ueuetlalli ynic huiac lxxxxiiii quavitl ynic patlauac tlatzintlan xx auh quapitzaton ça viii quavitl v atlhuelican tecpancalli ypan mani ynic huiac xxvii ypan cenma[tl] auh ynic patlauac xxiiii quavitl v atlhuelican tlacopantonco lxxxiiii quavitl ynic patlahuac tlatzint[lan] xxxvii auh quapitzaton ynic patlauac xxv v xochac huehuetlalli ynic viac Cxi quavitl ynic patlauac tlatzint[lan] ochpantencopa xxxviii auh quapitzaton ynic patlavac xxvi v quauhcuezcontitlan chinanpan ynic huiac Cxlix ynic patlauac tlatz[in]tlan Cxxii quavitl auh quapitzaton ynic patlauac xcviii v amantlan chinanpan ynic huiac Clxxxi ynic patlauac Cxl v Atecontonco chinanpan ynic huiac xcv auh ynic patlauac x v Couatzonco ynic huiac matlacpoualli ça necoc yuhqui v tecouac tescalli ynic viac Cxxx auh ynic patlavac xxvii auh yn tlalmilli yquac tescalli ic viac xxx ic patlauac xx[v] tlalcoualli nican pouhtoc v tecpancaltitlan xocotitlan ynic viac xvi quavitl yc patlavac xiiii quav[itl] v tecpanquiyauac teçoncaltitlan ynic viac xviiii quavitl yc patlauac vii quavi[tl] v Acuecuesco amaxac ynic viac chiquace quavitl ynic patlahuac iii quavi[tl] v çanno oncan acuecuesco ynic uiac vi ynic patlavac v quavitl v nespilco yquiyauac po couacuech ynic viac xxiiii ic patlauac xiii v çan ye oncan nespilco ynic viac vii ynic patlauac iiii v atenco yquiyauac mecatzin yc viac vi ynic patlauac iii v çan ye oncan atactli ytech ynic viac ix ic patlauac v v sandiago yquiyauac vexotitlan ic viac xiii yc patlahuac iii v san augtin teocalçoltitlan ynic viac C ynic patlauac xxxiiii quavi[tl] v abçolco chiquiuhchiuhcan inic viac xv ic patlauac x quavitl v tecpanquiyauac atlvelican ynic huiac xii ynic patlauac iii quavitl v çan ye oncan atlvelican inic uiac xii ynic patlauac vi quavitl v çan ye oncan atlvelican atiçacalli ypan mani ynic huiac ix quavitl ynic patlauac chiquacenquavitl v çan ye no oncan atiçacaltitlan ynic viac vii ic patlavac iii quavitl v çan ye no oncan nestlatilli ytlan ynic viac ix ypan cematl auh ynic patlavac iii ypan centlacotl v çan ye oncan yquiyauac po tetometl ynic viac xvi quahuitl ynic patlavac vii ypan cenyollotli v acallopan ynic viac xx auh ynic patlauac ii quavitl v tesomolco ynic huiac xi ynic patlauac ii quavitl v salpan yquiyauac macaval ynic viac x ic patlauac iiii quavitl v tenescaltitlan ynic huiac xiiii tescalli yc patlavac ix quavitl v cueçalco ynic huiac xvi ynic patlauac iii quavitl v sancopincan ynic huiac xii ynic patlavac i ypan cenmatl v tlalxopan ynic viac xi ynic patlauac iii quavi[tl] v çan ye no oncan tlalxopan yc viac iiii ic patlauac iii quavi[tl] v çan ye no oncan tlalxopan ynic viac v quavitl çan necoc iuhqui v cueçalco salpan ynic viac lxxi quavitl yc patlavac xxxii v çann itech antican salpan ynic viac lxxxiiii quahuitl ynic patlauac xxxv quavitl v atlixocan ynic huiac cv quavitl ynic patlavac c quavitl Acouic señor don Juan goueror yn itlalcoualtzin nican pouhtoc ynic cecni v atonco xochicaltitlan ynic huiac xvii quavitl yc patlauac xiiii v auatzalpan iquiyauac Juo ueiteicuhtzin ynic viac xiii quavitl yc patlauac iii v çacatetelco yquyauac marcos ynic viac v quavitl yc patlauac i ypan cenmatl v yecapan vecamecatl yquiyauac yc viac x quavitl ynic patlauac iii v quauhtlapetzco yquiyauac quauhxochtli ynic viac vi ic patlauac iii v tolnauac tenanitlan ynic huiac xx quavitl ynic patlauac x quavitl Nican icuilliuhtoc . ynic macoc posiciō . in tlacatl . don juan gouer.or nican onpehua . yn acohuic v. Inic cecni . callali . tlacomolco v. ynic ocan . neçavalcaltitlan — v. iniquescan tianquiztenco jular v. inic nauhcan oztopolco . callali v. inic macuilcan . chimaliztacā alauertā . v. inic chiquacecan . xoxocotlan — v. inic chiconcan . atlauhcamilpan . alauertā . v ini chicuescan . atepocaapan — v. inic chicuhnauhcan . çimatlan — v. inic matlaccā . ocoçacapan — v. inic matlactli . oce . chinācaltonco . v. inic matlactli . omome. çitlacouac . v. inic matlactli . omei . milpolco — v. inic matlactli . ōnavi tzitzicazpan _ v. inic castolcan . quauhcuillotitlan totollapan — v. inic castolli once . tecocozco — v. inic castolli . omome . tepetl yitic — v. inic castolli . omey . tlacoiyacā tlachquac — v. inic castolli . onnahui . o[co]tepec — v. inic cenpovalcā atl iitic apan — v inic cenpovalcā . once [. . .] Nican pouhtoc . in tlalnavac . in ipan [. . .] in tlatouani . don juā gouer.or v. inic cecni . atlhuelican — v. inic ocan tlacopantonco . v. iniquescan . cohuatzonco . v. inic nauhcan . coiotleuhco . v. inic macuilcā tochco — v, inic chiquacecan . çacamolpā . v. inic chiconcā . ocotitlan — v. inic chicuescā . amantlā . v. inic chicuhcnauhcā . quauhcuezcōtitlā . v. inic matlaccā . xochac . v. inic matlaccā . once tlillac — yehuatli in oquimomaquilli in mag.t yn ipan cā . neltilliztli . yn oaxcatilloc . yn tlatouani . don juā goueror yn ipan altepetl coyohuacan — [Transcription by James Lockhart (with minor formatting changes by Stephanie Wood; to be continued on the next page] Praised be the name of our redeemer Jesus Christ, Amen. I don Juan, governor in Coyoacan, who am in charge of our lord God’s altepetl for him, set forth here before you, you who are in charge of the altepetl of Coyoacan, you rulers, nobles, and lords: our ruler the lord viceroy and your father the father vicar wish the assessment to be set up for the Coyoacan ruler’s provisions that are to be given to me, needed daily: three [turkey?] hens; two baskets of shelled maize; 400 cacao beans; 200 chiles; one piece of salt; tomatoes, gourd seeds; 10 [men to act as] guards [general servants]; 8 [women to be] grinders of maize; 6 loads of wood; grass for horse fodder, five loads, to be delivered daily, very much needed. And it is required that fields in four places be attended to, the first at Ocoçacapan, the second at Milpolco, the third at Coyotleuhco, the fourth at Tochco. It is necessary to see to it very well so that it will be done. And it is required that a separate house be built, to be don Juan’s house; the commoners are to make it for him. It is to be seen to. And it is required that ten carpenters be attached to him, and also ten stonemasons; they are to do what is needed. And the market is to pertain to don Juan, is to pertain to the palace. And as to all the artisans and craftsmen, it is required that they all be attached to the palace to do what is needed. And it is required that every 180 days two reales be given by each [tribute-payer, household] to don Juan; all the commoners will give it to him so that he will rule; it is to be given to him twice a year. This, then, is what is very necessary to be done; confer together whether it is to be thus or not, you regidores and alcaldes, you don Pablo Çacancatl and you, don Luis, lord of Acuecuexco, and you Juan Tlaillotlac, all five of you consult and come to agreement whether it is to be done or not. This is all I say in your presence. [WHAT FOLLOWS HERE CORRESPONDS TO COMING PAGES] There belong to don Juan 29 persons who are [people of his household], and widows. v At Chimaliztacan are 7 people. v At Atlauhcamilpan, 7 people. v At Mixcoac, 4 people. v At Xochitenco, 4 people. v At Chinancaltonco are 4 people. v At San Gerónimo are 12 people. v At Tlaçoiyacan are 18 people. v At Hueicalco are 8 people and 2 youths. v At Ahuacatitlan are 21. v At Acopilco are 25 and 6 youths. v At Pachiuhcan are 2 people. v At Chimalpan are 4 people. v At Amantlan are 6 people. v At Coatzonco, 13 people. v At Tecoac, 6 people. v At Acolco, 80 people. v At Tlamimilolpan, 51 people. v At Çacamolpan are 29 people. v At Ocotitlan, 30 people and 6 youths. v At Tepechpan are 6 people. v And it all totals 380, and widows. -436, 466 As to the vassals of lord don Juan who are to work the land and clear the ground in San Agustín, those of Xiuhtlan will begin to clear the ground, and [next?] those of Çacamolpan, Ocotitlan, Coatzonco, the [people of the household], and the Ahuapoltitlan people [for seven days]; Diego is to be over them. v And the Acopilco people are to give Pedro de Vergara his wood—his planks, his cut wood—[for seven days]; Huitznahuatl is to be over them. v And the people of Atlauhcamilpan are to feed people [for one week]; Domingo will take care of it. v And those who cultivate the fields [the dependents] at Cimatlan and Mixcoac are to reap wheat at Atepocaapan [for seven days]; Juan Tlanahuahua will be over them. v And the artisans and [advantaged people] will farm; they are to work all the purchased land which lies scattered about; they are to commence at Neçahualcaltitlan [the seventh day?]; Antón Huixtopolcatl is to be over them. v The people of Chimaliztacan are to guide the oxen working the land for seven days. Memorandum: the lands of the ruler and governor don Julan in the lower region (Tlalnahuac) are recorded here, beginning first with: v At Tlacomolco at the palace, 60 quahuitl long, 35 quahuitl wide. v At Tepancallo, with an ancestral house on it, 64 quahuitl long and 40 quahuitl wide. v A lot outside the palace, 11 [quahuitl] long, 10 [quahuitl] and 1 matl wide. v At Acuecuexco ancestral land, 55 quahuitl long, 37 wide. v At Tletlepilocan, in Tlilac, ancestral land, 94 quahuitl long, 20 wide below and narrowing to only 8 quahuitl at the top. v At Atlhuelican, with a palace on it, 29 quahuitl plus 1 matl long, and 24 quahuitl wide. v At Atlhuelican, at Tlacopantonco, 84 quahuitl [long], 37 wide below, and narrowing to 25 wide above. v At Xochac ancestral land, 111 quahuitl long, 38 wide below, toward the edge of the main road, and narrowing to 26 wide above. v At Quauhcuezcontitlan, at Chinampan, 149 long, 122 quahuitl wide below, and narrowing to 98 wide above. v At Amantlan, at Chinampan, 181 [quahuitl] long, 140 wide. v At Atecontonco, at Chinampan, 95 [quahuitl] long, and 10 wide. v At Coatzonco, 200 [quahuitl] long, the same on both sides. v At Tecoac rocky land, 130 [quahuitl] long and 27 wide, and the cultivated fields above the rocky land, 30 long, 25 wide. The purchased lands are recorded here. v Next to the palace at Xocotitlan, 16 quahuitl long, 14 quahuitl wide. v Outside the palace at Teçoncaltitlan, 19 quahuitl long, 7 quahuitl wide. v At Acuecuexco, at Amaxac, 6 quahuitl long, 3 quahuitl wide. v Also at Acuecuexco, 6 quahuitl long, 5 wide. v At Nexpilco, near the place of Pedro Coacuech, 24 [quahuitl] long, 13 wide. v Also at Nexpilco, 7 [quahuitl] long, 4 wide. v At Atenco, near the place of Mecatzin, 6 [quahuitl] long, 3 wide. v At the same place, next to the reservoir, 9 [quahuitl] long, 5 wide. v Near to [Santiago], at Huexotitlan, 13 [quahuitl] long, 3 wide. v At San Agustín, at Teocalçoltitlan, 100 quahuitl long, 34 wide. v At Apçolco, at Chiquiuhchiuhcan, 15 quahuitl long, 10 wide. v Outside the palace at Atlhuelican, 12 quahuitl long, 3 wide. v Also at Atlhuelican, 12 quahuitl long, 6 wide. v Also at Atlhuelican, with a chalk adobe house on it, 9 quahuitl long, 6 quahuitl wide. v At the same place, next to the chalk adobe house, 7 quahuitl long, 3 wide. v At the same place, next to the ash heap, 9 [quahuitl] plus 1 matl long, and 3½ wide. v At the same place, near the place of Pedro Tetometl, 16 quahuitl long, 7 and 1 yollotli wide. v At Acalopan, 20 quahuitl long, and 2 wide. v At Texomolco, 11 quahuitl long, 2 wide. v At Xalpan, near the place of Macahual, 10 quahuitl long, 4 wide. v At Tenexcaltitlan rocky land, 14 quahuitl long, 9 wide. v At Cueçalco, 16 quahuitl long, 3 wide. v At Xancopincan, 12 [quahuitl] long, 1 [quahuitl] and 1 matl wide. v At Tlalxopan, 11 quahuitl long, 3 wide. v Also at Tlalxopan, 4 quahuitl long, 3 wide. v Also at Tlalxopan, 5 quahuitl long, the same on both sides. v At Cueçalco, at Xalpan, 71 quahuitl long, 32 wide. v Stretching right next to it, at Xalpan, 84 quahuitl long, 35 quahuitl wide. v At Atlixxocan, 105 brazas long, 100 brazas wide. Here are recorded the lord governor don Juan’s purchased lands in the upper region (Acohuic); first: v At Atonco, next to the bathhouse, 17 quahuitl long, 14 wide. v At Ahuatzalpan, near the place of Juan Hueiteuctzin, 13 quahuitl long, 3 wide. v At Çacatetelco, near the place of Marcos, 5 quahuitl long, 1 [quahuitl] plus 1 matl wide. v At Ecapan, near the place of Huecamecatl, 10 quahuitl long, 3 wide. v At Quauhtlapetzco, near the boundary, 6 [quahuitl] long, 3 wide. v At Tolnahuac, at Tenanitlan, 20 quahuitl long, 10 quahuitl wide. Here is written how possession was given to the lord don Juan, governor. Here begins the upper region (Acohuic). v. 1st, house-land at Tlacomolco. v. 2nd, [land] at Neçahualcaltitlan. v. 3rd, a lot at Tianquiztenco. v. 4th, house-land at Oztopolco. v. 5th, an orchard at Chimaliztacan. v. 6th, [land] at Xoxocotlan. v. 7th, an orchard at Atlauhcamilpan. v 8th, [land] at Atepocaapan. v. 9th, [land] at Cimatlan. v. 10th, [land] at Ocoçacaapan. v. 11th, [land] at Chinancaltonco. v. 12th, [land] at Citlalcoac. v. 13th, [land] at Milpolco. v. 14th, [land] at Tzitzicazpan. v. 15th, [land] at Quauhcuillotitlan Totolapan. v. 16th, [land] at Tecocozco. v. 17th, (land) at Tepetlitic. v. 18th, [land] at Tlacoiyacan Tlachquac. v. 19th, [land] at Ocotepec. v. 20th, [land] at Atlitic Apan. v 21st, [land] [. . .] Here is recorded [what belongs to] the ruler and governor don Juan in the lower region (Tlalnahuac). v. 1st, [land] at Atlhuelican. v. 2nd, [land] at Tlacopantonco. v. 3rd, [land] at Coatzonco. v. 4th, [land] at Coyotleuhco. v. 5th, [land] at Tochco. v. 6th, [land] at Çacamolpan. v. 7th, [land] at Ocotitlan. v. 8th, [land] at Amantlan. v. 9th, [land] at Quauhcuezcontitlan. v. 10th, [land] at Xochac. v. 11th, [land] at Tlilac. This is what His Majesty gave to the ruler don Juan, governor in the altepetl of Coyoacan, for which there is verification that it was made his property. [....] v I gave away my land voluntarily at Coatzonco and Çacamolpan; I gave it to my field workers. As to the manner of the count, they counted it with the twelve-foot quahuitl. v At Çacamolpan, 280 long, 100 wide. v At Coatzonco, 340 long, 40 wide. v That which was given away not in my presence is at Axochco, Ocotitlan, Tecoac, Amatlan, Chimaliztacan, Atlauhcamilpan, Ameyalco, Tianquiztonco. v What they took at Axochco is 90 quahuitl long, 40 wide. v What they took at Ocotitlan is 500 long, 40 wide; the field workers took it. v What they took at Amantlan is 140 long, 40 wide. v What they took at Chimaliztacan is 130 quahuitl long, 40 wide. v What they took at Atlauhcamilpan is 120 long, 40 wide. v What they took at Ameyalco [and?] Tianquiztonco is 100 long, 40 wide. The field workers of señor don Juan de Guzmán who were given land on his fields totaled 109 people. [Translation by James Lockhart]
Tehuatin in titecuhtlatoqz ioan talgaldesme in ticpia . inn altepetl . in coiovacan ca toconneltillia . in ixquich in itecpilal in seno—r Don juan . in gunvernador in coyovacan . ca in iquac . in tlamiz . ca quinmacatiaz . in ipilvā . in itecpillal — Inic cecni in itecpillal in seno—r don juā ytocaiocā acopilco . Inic oncā . in itecpilal in seno—r don juā . ytocaiocā . avapoltitla . Iniquexcan . in itecpilal ytocaiocā . chimaliztacan Inic nauhcan in itecpilal ytocaiocā . xoxocotlan Inic macuilcā in itecpilal ytocaiocan . atlauhcamilpā Inic chiquacecan in itecpilal ytocaiocā . copilco . Inic chicocā . in itecpilal . ytocaiocā . çimatlā Inic chiquexcan in itecpilal ytocaiocan çitlalcovac Inic chicuhnauhcā . in itecpilal ytocaiocā . atepocaapā Inic matlaccā . in itecpilal . ytocaiocā tecocozco . Inic matlaccā . honce . in itecpilal . ytocaiocā , tlachquac Inic matlacā . homome . in itecpilal ytocaiocā . ocotepec . Inic matlaccā . homey . in itecpilal . ytocaiocā tepetl iitic Inic matlaccā honnavi . in itecpillal . ytocaiocā . totollac Inic castolcā . in itecpilal ytocaiocan . amantla Inic castolcā . once . in itecpilal . ytocaiocā . quauhcuezcontitla Inic castolcā homome . in itecpilal . ytocaiocā . atlvellicā . Inic castolcā . onmei . ytocaiocan xochac Inic castolcā . honnahui . ytocaiocā . çacamolpā . Inic cenpovalcā . ytocaiocā . xiuhtlā . Inic cenpovalcā . hōce . ytocaiocā . hocotitlā . Inic cēpovalcā . homome . ytocaiocā . tecovac Inic cēpovalcā . homey. ytocaiocā . axochco . ---- [WHAT FOLLOWS HERE BELONGS TO FORTHCOMING PAGE(S)] Inic oncā . in itecpilal in seno—r don juā . ytocaiocā . avapoltitla . Iniquexcan . in itecpilal ytocaiocā . chimaliztacan Inic nauhcan in itecpilal ytocaiocā . xoxocotlan Inic macuilcā in itecpilal ytocaiocan . atlauhcamilpā Inic chiquacecan in itecpilal ytocaiocā . copilco . Inic chicocā . in itecpilal . ytocaiocā . çimatlā Inic chiquexcan in itecpilal ytocaiocan çitlalcovac Inic chicuhnauhcā . in itecpilal ytocaiocā . atepocaapā Inic matlaccā . in itecpilal . ytocaiocā tecocozco . Inic matlaccā . honce . in itecpilal . ytocaiocā , tlachquac Inic matlacā . homome . in itecpilal ytocaiocā . ocotepec . Inic matlaccā . homey . in itecpilal . ytocaiocā tepetl iitic Inic matlaccā honnavi . in itecpillal . ytocaiocā . totollac Inic castolcā . in itecpilal ytocaiocan . amantla Inic castolcā . once . in itecpilal . ytocaiocā . quauhcuezcontitla Inic castolcā homome . in itecpilal . ytocaiocā . atlvellicā . Inic castolcā . onmei . ytocaiocan xochac Inic castolcā . honnahui . ytocaiocā . çacamolpā . Inic cenpovalcā . ytocaiocā . xiuhtlā . Inic cenpovalcā . hōce . ytocaiocā . hocotitlā . Inic cēpovalcā . homome . ytocaiocā . tecovac Inic cēpovalcā . homey. ytocaiocā . axochco .toco v Yn oquicuique axochco ynic viac napohualli ypan matlacmatl yc pantlahuac opohualli v yn oquicuique ocotitlan ynic viac i tzotli ypan macuilpohualli ynic [pa]tlahuac opoualli yn oquicuique temiltique v yn oquicuique amatlan ynic viac chicopohuanlli yc patlahuac onpohualli v yn oquicuique chimalliztaca ynic viac chiquacepuhualli yhuan m[a]tlacmatl yc patlahuac opuhualli v yn oquicuique atlauhcamilpa ynic viac chiquacepohualli yc patlahuac opohualli v yn oquicuique ameyalco tiaquiztoco ynic viac macuilpoh[ua]lli yc patlahuac opohualli yn omocepouhque yn itemilticauh señor don juan de guzman y çan ocan omotlalmacaque yn imilpatzinco macuiltecpatli ypan chicnaui tlacatl [Transcription by James Lockhart (with minor formatting changes by Stephanie Wood] We the lord-rulers and alcaldes who have charge of the altepetl of Coyoacan verify all the lordly nobleman’s land of señor don Juan, governor of Coyoacan; when he expires, he will give his lordly nobleman’s land to his children. 1st, señor don Juan’s lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Acopilco. 2nd, señor don Juan’s lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Ahuapoltitlan. 3rd, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Chimaliztacan. 4th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Xoxocotlan. 5th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Atlaucamilpan. 6th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Copilco. 7th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Cimatlan. 8th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Citlalcoac. 9th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Atepocaapan. 10th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Tecocozco. 11th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Tlachquac. 12th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Ocotepec. 13th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Tepetlitic. 14th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Totolac. 15th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Amantlan. 16th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Quauhcuezcontitlan. 17th, his lordly nobleman’s land at the place called Atlhuelican. 18th, [land] at the place called Xochac. 19th, [land] at the place called Çacamolpan. 20th, [land] at the place called Xiuhtlan. 21st, [land] at the place called Ocotitlan. 22nd, [land] at the place called Tecoac. 23rd, [land] at the place called Axochco.